In order to achieve a cost efficient reduction of the CO2 intensity of the energy supply, a cross-sectoral examination and prioritization of transformation steps must be carried out. Energy technologies using conventional gas or gases generated from renewable energy sources are potentially relevant measures to reduce CO2 emissions.
In the FfE project "CO2 abatement costs of gases - development of static CO2 abatement cost curves" resulting additional or reduced costs due to new investment in gas-based technologies instead of coal and oil-based technologies were determined. For this purpose, a special tool to calculate and visualize CO2 abatement costs and CO2 reduction cost curves was created.
The analysis of CO2 abatement costs was carried out for both current and expected cost structures of energy sources and technologies in 2030. In addition, a distinction was made between the resulting costs from stakeholder and system perspective as well as an analysis of the relevance of fixed costs in relation to variable operating costs.
For the analysis, these results were graphically prepared for various gas application fields (see the example of the current CO2 abatement costs in the mobility sector in Figure 1). The pitch of the brown dot to the right (in the left image) illustrates a market distortion in the mobility sector. This is caused by a higher taxation of diesel vehicles compared to gas vehicles.
Figure 1: Current CO2 abatement costs from system and stakeholder perspective (left) as well as cost and emission differences per provided functional unit (right) for individual traffic
A cross-sectoral comparison of the results shows that CO2 abatement costs, for high-temperature process heat and in the individual transport sector are very high (see CO2 abatement cost curve for current framework conditions in Figure 2). In contrast, the field of low temperature heat supply has low CO2 abatement costs. Under the given assumptions some cases exhibit negative CO2 abatement costs, as the substitution of coal or oil fired appliances through gas-based technologies leads to cost savings.
Figure 2: Cross-sector CO2- abatement cost curve from a system perspective under current framework conditions
As a result of falling costs for renewable gases, CO2 abatement costs are expected to decrease across all sectors by 2030.
Explanations on the methodology and other exemplary results in the application areas of individual transport, industrial heat and centralised electricity supply can be found in the final presentation and in the upcoming publication.
In order to make the results comprehensible and allow a scientific discussion, both the data used and the corresponding sources are provided on this page.