Electromobility is a central research area of the FFE and is part of numerous research projects. In the following series of articles, different topics are presented. One focus is on scenarios for electric vehicles and charging stations in Germany. Furthermore, the different charging plugs are explained and different possibilities of grid integration by controlled and bidirectional charging are described. Finally, the climate footprint of electric vehicles is discussed.
This article is the second of a series of 7 articles which will now be published successively on our website.
|Overview of the topics of the article series on electromobility|
|1.||Development of electromobility
|4.||Private and public charging|
|6.||Use Cases for bidirectional charging|
|7.||Climate assessment of electric vehicles|
Charging points designate the connection for charging an electric vehicle (EV), whereby only one EV can charge at a time. A charging station or electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the contrary can have one or more charging points.
Together with the growing adoption of EVs, the technology and infrastructure to charge them is expanding as well. To ensure the success of electromobility, sufficient expansion of publicly accessible charging points is indispensable.
Since 2014, there has been a growth of 317 % in the deployment charging points in Europe, but from a low base. Of the 144,000 charging points available across the European Union in 2019, over 26 % are located in the Netherlands (37,037) and 19 % in Germany (27,459), with another 17 % in France (24,850) and 13 % in the United Kingdom (19,076). However, the total number of charging points across the entire EU falls far short of what is required to push electro mobility. According to estimates by the European Commission, at least 2.8 million charging points will be needed by 2030. 
In several European countries, public sector has taken lead in promoting charging infrastructure. In Germany, the Climate Protection Plan seeks for a 40-42 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector by 2030 compared to 1990. To this end, it states the charging infrastructure as a basic prerequisite for the acceptance and growth of electric mobility setting a long-term goal of 1 million charging points by 2030. That would represent 40 times more than the roughly 25,000 points available now. The climate plan also orders the establishment of a “National Control Centre Charging Infrastructure” for coordinated ramp-up or the creation of a framework that enable Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to invest in the intelligence and controllability of the networks.
As a direct reaction to the Climate Protection Plan, the “Master Plan for Charging Infrastructure” aims to deploy an additional 50,000 public charging points over the next two years. To achieve this, significant investment is required, the costs for the large-scale deployment of charging infrastructure are too significant to be borne by public sector alone, and thus the auto industry itself has committed to install 15,000 charging points. Moreover, the Federal Government has published the bill for the modernization of the Wohneigentumsgesetztes (Residential Property law), which could come into force in the autumn of 2020. The draft will expand the possibilities of condominium owners to modify the common property, thus affecting the capacity to build new charging points. 
In recent years, the charging infrastructure has already seen heavily investments. Between 2017 and 2020, € 300 million have been dedicated to the installation of 10,000 slow (AC) charging stations and 5,000 fast (DC) charging stations in public spaces. For this new 2030 climate plan, the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure plans to invest some € 3,5 billion to encourage the roll-out of public charging stations. Moreover, employers offering free charging of EVs will not be taxed for the service until 2030 and the exemption to declare the charge of plug-in electric vehicles at the employer will continue until the end of 2020. 
Figure 1: Summary of policies to support ECV Infrastructure in Germany
Another key aspect for the success of electromobility is a reliable information on locations and availability of charging infrastructure. On 17 March 2016, the Ordinance on minimum technical requirements for the safe and interoperable construction and operation of publicly accessible charging points for electric vehicles (Charging Station Ordinance - LSV) came into force. Among other things, it prescribes the notification of charging points to the Federal Network Agency.  
A comparison of the data registered for publicly charging points in the Federal Network Agency shows that, when comparing the federal states, Bavaria is by far the leader with almost 8,000 public charging points (data of Apr. 2020). North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg follow in second and third place. In regional terms, Munich is the city with the largest number of charging points, closely followed by Berlin and Hamburg (see Figure 2).