Energy carrier and CO2 prices are subject to constant trading on spot and futures markets and consequently exhibit price formation based on supply and demand. Short-term forecast models and long-term oriented energy system models can depict this price formation. In this way, statements can be made on the development of primary energy sources, electricity, and CO2 prices. Since both the supply and the demand of energy carriers, and the European CO2 certificates are undergoing significant structural changes in the energy transition, equally strong future changes in price levels and price characteristics can be assumed. In this context, global or at least Europe-wide interrelationships of energy markets often have to be considered.
Specifically, we consider the following questions:
- Are we heading for energy poverty with rising consumer prices?
- Will electricity prices rise in the future?
- How do renewable energies affect electricity price volatility?
- How will the costs of conventional energy sources develop?
- What will the future price of gas be based on? (Oil price link?)
- Will there be more and more negative electricity prices in the future?
- How high will the CO2 price be in the future?