To achieve national climate goals, drastic reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are needed in all sectors of the energy system. Various measures are available for implementation. Efficiency improvements, the expansion of renewable energies, increasing electrification, synthetic and biogenic energy sources, as well as the capture of CO2 are considered vital building blocks for a sustainable energy system. In addition to the contribution to CO2 reduction, cost efficiency is central to the choice of measures. An overall increase in demand due to cost savings and other rebound effects must be minimized. With the help of our models, we show which actions can make an essential contribution to a cost-efficient and climate-neutral energy system.
Specifically, we consider the following questions:
- Which measures can be used to reduce GHG emissions?
- What role do rebound effects play in the implementation of measures?
- Where can GHG emissions be reduced most cost-effectively?
- How can I include external costs caused by GHG emissions?
- What can a climate-neutral energy system look like?