08.2023 - 12.2026

EMADI – Development of an Economical Metering and Billing Procedure for Dynamic Inductive Charging Systems

The EMADI project focuses on dynamic inductive charging systems (DWPT – Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer).  At the moment, DWPT technology is only used on a small scale and in closed systems in public transport in Germany. Important components and regulations are still missing for widespread use.

EMADI contributes to this by developing crucial foundations for the public deployment of DWPT technology and analysing the impact of dynamic inductive charging on vehicle batteries and the environment.

Motivation and Project Objectives

The DWPT system enables electric vehicles to be supplied with electricity wirelessly while driving. This so-called dynamic inductive charging offers the potential to increase the range of electric vehicles. It is also expected to enable the use of smaller batteries and the increased charging of electricity from renewable energy sources. This could significantly improve efficiency and sustainability, particularly on long stretches of highway – especially in freight transport.

For public use, such as on highways, a certified energy measurement and billing system is primarily lacking. While the measurement of delivered electrical energy during stationary cable charging is established, such concepts for DWPT systems are not yet in place. Inductive charging while in motion poses specific requirements for measurement and the information and communication system (ICT system). Addressing this issue, the main goal of EMADI is the development and practical testing of ICT systems for energy measurement, communication, and billing (EKA) for publicly accessible DWPT systems.

In addition, the potential associated with the usage of DWPT to improve resource efficiency and sustainability in electromobility has not yet been systematically investigated. However, quantifying this potential is important to conduct a fact-based discussion on the use of DWPT. For example, the project is investigating how dynamic inductive charging affects the battery load and thus its service life. This is done for the use case of dynamic inductive charging in freight transport on highways. Subsequently, a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impact of DWPT technology over the entire life cycle is carried out. Based on these results, options for action for a sustainable charging infrastructure are derived.

Installation of DWPT coils
Figure 1: Installation of DWPT coils
DWPT electric bus
Figure 2: DWPT electric bus for pilot operation

Project Structure

The conception, construction, and testing of the EKA system are being carried out by project partners Electreon Germany GmbH (Electreon), Institute for Automation and Communication e.V. (ifak), Isabellenhütte Heusler GmbH & Co. KG (ISA), and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). To test the developed prototype EKA technology, EnBW and Electreon are jointly establishing and operating a DWPT test track in Karlsruhe. Here, various methods for implementing the EKA systems in real operations can be tested. This is done using an electric bus provided by EnBW and additionally with an electric car from TOYOTA GAZOO Racing Europe (TGR-E), each equipped with Electreon’s DWPT technology during the project.

Parallel to the prototypical development, the FfE, in collaboration with the Chair of Electrical Energy Storage Technology at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), is conducting an investigation into sustainability aspects of DWPT deployment on highways. For this purpose, the FfE generates synthetic load profiles for dynamic inductive charging on highways. These profiles are used by the partners of TUM to develop suitable capacity designs and high-resolution loading profiles for lithium-ion batteries. Based on these load profiles the battery lifespan is examined through the application of a generic battery aging model and practical experimental series.

In a further step, the FfE conducts comparative life cycle analyses (LCA) for inductive and conductive charging. These analyses are utilized to identify and evaluate potentials for improving the environmental footprint of charging technologies, for instance, through circular economy measures. From this comprehensive perspective, action options for a sustainable charging infrastructure are ultimately derived.

FfE content in the project

The development and testing of a measurement and billing procedure for dynamic inductive charging systems is being scientifically supported by the FfE. The specific objectives are to:

  • Implementation of an LCA, including the creation of the required database by modeling charging load profiles for e-trucks on highways
  • Quantification of the environmental impact of DWPT compared to conductive charging technology and identification of possible levers by means of LCA assessment
  • Derivation of options for action to improve the environmental balance of DWPT charging infrastructure based on an LCA, cycle analysis and emission-optimized charging strategies

Project Partners

Led by EnBW, the project includes FfE e.V., Electreon Germany GmbH (Electreon), the Institute for Automation and Communication e.V. (ifak), Isabellenhütte Heusler GmbH & Co. KG (ISA), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the Chair of Electrical Energy Storage Technology (EES) at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and TOYOTA GAZOO Racing Europe GmbH (TGR-E)) are involved in the project.

Project Duration

The research project is scheduled to run from August 2023 until July 2026.


The research project is funded by Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz (BMWK)  (funding code: 01MV23017C).




[1] SPD, Bündnis 90 – Die Grünen, FDP (2021): Mehr Fortschritt wagen, https://www.spd.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Koalitionsvertrag/Koalitionsvertrag_2021-2025.pdf (abgerufen am 20.12.2021)

[2] BMF (2021): Sofortprogramm für mehr Klimaschutz, https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen