07.2022 - 06.2025

ELINA – Deployment of Dynamic Inductive Charging Infrastructure in Public Transport

As part of the ELINA project, the use of dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT) technology for electric vehicles in public spaces is being tested for the first time in Germany. For this purpose, the electric shuttle bus of the Balingen 2023 Garden Show will be charged inductively along designated routes and bus stops. Afterwards, the technology will undergo further testing in regular bus operation. The latest updates on the field test can be found on the German project website.

Motivation and Objective

In the field of electromobility, the predominant charging concept is currently wired (conductive) charging. However, the stationary charging process at dedicated charging stations often leads to inconveniences for users due to waiting times and limited availability of charging points, which can affect the overall user experience. Additionally, the range of electric vehicles depends on the availability of charging points and battery capacity. Using conductive charging technologies electric buses have to charge at bus stops or in the depot. Charging at bus stops need to be aligned with the bus routes and schedules.

However, these options have their limitations. In the case of overnight charging at the depot for example, the use of renewable energy is possible to a limited extent as charging during periods of high solar irradiation is not possible. Moreover, the battery size and range need to be designed considering the daily mileage of the bus, affecting the vehicle’s life cycle assessment and carbon footprint, considering both battery dimensioning and electricity consumption during the operational phase.

The objective of the project is to test and advance the practical application of DWPT technology, bringing it closer to market maturity in Germany. The project itself focuses on the use of DWPT in public transport.

Figure 1: Overview of wireless charging of electric buses using the system provided by project partner Electreon in Balingen; Source: Electreon

Project Structure

The field test on selected bus routes as part of the Balingen 2023 Garden Show is made possible through collaboration among project partners Electreon, Stadtwerke Balingen, and EnBW. This enables the analysis of the technology’s requirements and impacts on the energy system, such as the existing power grid, in real-world operation. FfE is responsible for assessing the climate and system impacts of bus operation, including the reduction potential of greenhouse gas emissions through increased utilization of solar power.

Additionally, an accompanying survey will identify the necessary framework conditions for technology acceptance. To ensure scalability, the insights gained from the field test will be integrated into the development of planning software by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This will facilitate the cost-optimized design of future DWPT-supported bus networks.

Figure 2: Overview of the overall project ELINA

FfE’s contributions to the project

The testing of DWPT technology in public transport conducted within the project is scientifically accompanied by FfE. The goals are:

  • Assessing the national potential of DWPT technology in local public transportation
  • Identifying the requirements for power grid planning
  • Analyzing the technical, economic and regulatory environment
  • Investigating aspects of social acceptance of the technology
  • Demonstrating the climate and system impacts in comparison to alternative charging technologies and control modes
  • Conducting a qualitative analysis of potential impacts on distribution networks

Project Partners

Under the leadership of EnBW, the project also involves FfE e.V., Stadtwerke Balingen, the Institute for Vehicle Systems Engineering at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Electreon Germany GmbH.


The research project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection (BMWK) (Funding Code: 01 MV22019B).