Series Electromobility: Private and public charging
Electromobility is a central research area of the FFE and is part of numerous research projects. In the following series of articles, different topics are presented. One focus is on scenarios for electric vehicles and charging stations in Germany. Furthermore, the different charging plugs are explained and different possibilities of grid integration by controlled and bidirectional charging are described. Finally, the climate footprint of electric vehicles is discussed.

This article is the fourth of a series of 7 articles which will now be published successively on our website.


Overview of the topics of the article series on electromobility
1.   Development of electromobility
2.   Charging points
3.   Plugtypes
4.   Private and public charging
5.   Smart Charging
6.   Use Cases for bidirectional charging
7.   Climate assessment of electric vehicles


The installed charging stations can differ on technical aspects, such as maximum power or plug type connection, but also with regard to the location and accessibility of the charging station. According to the two previous ones, a distinction can be made between private, semi-public and public charging stations. [1] [2]

  • Private charging stations are located at private ground and can be used only by the owner of the station or by a selected group (e.g. company workers). They are often linked to the existing grid connection of the adjacent building and the consumed electricity is normally charged to the owner of this connection.
  • Semi-public charging stations are also located at private ground but are more accessible, so users are usually customers. They can be linked to the existing grid connection of the building or can have an individual grid. Since each EV customer can charge its vehicle, the station is often operated by a charging point operator (CPO).
  • Public charging stations are located at municipal ground, have always an individual grid connection and are operated by a CPO.

Privates und oeffentliches Laden

Figure 1: Characteristics of the types of charging stations.  [1], [2]


The development of public infrastructure is associated with extensive specification and standards that have contributed to the emerge of new players in the business of charging electric cars such as the Charging Point Operator (CPO), the Mobility Service Provider (MSP), the energy supplier or the roaming platform. The CPO is responsible for the installation, service and maintenance of the charging point. The MSP is the customer's contact person for tariff structures making the charging infrastructure accessible. The power supplier delivers the station with the contractually agreed amount of electricity and the roaming platform provides access to charging points of different CPOs. [3]


Akteure bei öffentlichen Ladestationen

Figure 2: Actors in public charging points


Further information:



[1]   Hall, Dale; Lutsey, Nic. (2017). Emerging best practices for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The international council on clean transportation. (ICCT)
[2]   Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (BMVI) (2014). Öffentliche Ladeinfrastruktur für Städte, Kommunen und Versorger.
[3]   Göß, Simon. (2018). E-Mobilität in Deutschland (III): Akteure rund um die Ladesäule. Energy Brainpool GmbH & Co. KG.




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